Contact: +91-9711224068
  • Printed Journal
  • Indexed Journal
  • Refereed Journal
  • Peer Reviewed Journal
International Journal of Bioscience and Biochemistry

Vol. 6, Issue 1, Part A (2024)

Isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from under long nails (natural and artificial) in young females


Ahmed Abdurrahman Mohammed


The current study examined the bacteriological content of fingernails among a group of young females collected from Kirkuk University between December 1, 2023, and February 1, 2024. The participants included individuals with both natural and artificial long nails, aged between 18 and 25 years. A total of 110 swab samples were taken from beneath the long nails of the participants using sterile swabs. The results revealed that 86 samples contained various types of bacteria, while fungi were excluded from the analysis as the study focused exclusively on bacterial content beneath long nails. Additionally, 24 samples showed no bacterial presence.

Following colony isolation, the organisms were identified based on Biochemical tests are crucial for identifying and characterizing microorganisms. The indole test determines an organism's ability to produce indole from tryptophan. The citrate test assesses an organism's ability to use citrate as its sole carbon source. The nitrate reduction test checks if an organism can reduce nitrate to nitrite or further to nitrogen gas. Lastly, the urease test detects the presence of the enzyme urease, indicating an organism's ability to hydrolyze urea. These tests help in identifying and classifying bacteria based on their metabolic capabilities. The predominant bacteria found in the samples were E. coli, comprising 35 isolates (40.6%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis with 18 isolates (20.9%). Propionibacterium acnes exhibited the lowest occurrence, with only one isolate in this study. Subsequent sensitivity tests were conducted to assess the resistance of isolated bacteria to the antibiotic used. The results indicated resistance among isolates to ampicillin, methenamine, and clindamycin. However, most isolates showed sensitivity to levofloxacin and amikacin.This suggests a potential dissemination of disease-causing microbes beneath fingernails, underscoring the significance of nail hygiene practices.

Pages: 51-56  |  76 Views  36 Downloads

International Journal of Bioscience and Biochemistry
How to cite this article:
Ahmed Abdurrahman Mohammed. Isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from under long nails (natural and artificial) in young females. Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. 2024;6(1):51-56. DOI: 10.33545/26646536.2024.v6.i1a.66
Call for book chapter