Rani Kamlesh, Singh Santosh, Prakash Sudhakar and Arya Sunita
Pesticides are one of the important factors affecting biodiversity, along with habitat loss and climate change. They can have toxic effects in the short term in directly exposed organisms, or long-term effects by causing changes in habitat and the food chain. Aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity can be impacted by pesticides through their direct or indirect application, such as pesticide drift, secondary poisoning, runoff into local water bodies, or groundwater contamination. Pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants. Insecticides are generally the most acutely toxic class of pesticides, but herbicides can also pose risks to non-target organisms.
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