Noori Mohammed Aziz
Background: One of the major causes of end-stage kidney disease and nephropathy is diabetes: it leads to increases in the serum levels of many parameters, such as aquaporin-4 and other biochemical parameters that perform many biological activities throughout the human body. Changes in the plasma and blood levels of these parameters directly relate to an elevated chance of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the potential association between aquaporin-4 and biochemical parameters in cases of T2DM remains to be perfectly understood. Hence, this study is aimed at the assessment of the relationship between the levels of aquaporin-4 and other biochemical parameters and T2DM among Iraqi patients.
Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and included a total of 90 participants (50 with T2DM and 40 healthy without T2DM); all the participants underwent several important routine health examinations. The patients' ages ranged from 18 to 35 years. The samples were collected for the measurement of aquaporin-4 and biochemical parameters via biochemical and clinical methods specified in this study. The association between aquaporin-4 and biochemical parameters in T2DM was determined using statistical analysis methods (SPSS version 24); the level of significance of the identified relationships was determined using Pearson's correlation.
Results: The mean value of glucose, N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), urea and ferritin for participants with T2DM was significantly higher (P = 0.001), (P = 0.041), (P = 0.038), (P = 0.002), and (P =0.020) compared to the control group. Furthermore, the mean value of uric acid, albumin, myoglobin, and the atherogenic index was higher but not significant in the diabetic group compared to the non-diabetic group. Regarding aquaporin-4 value; it was low in concentration compared with patients at the significant level of P=0.008); aquaporin-4 was found to be negatively correlated with blood glucose levels and NT-proBNP ferritin in T2DM patients.
Conclusions: Elevated levels of blood glucose, urea, NT-proBNP, and ferritin with a low concentration of aquaporin-4 were observed in patients with T2DM; it was also found that there is a correlation between aquaporin-4 and biochemical parameters of T2DM patients. This study recommends testing and screening for aquaporin-4 and other biochemical parameters on a larger scale as it has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes.
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